Oltu Journal of Faculty of
Humanities and Social Sciences

Editors
Cavit YEŞİLYURT 
Department of Econometrics, Atatürk University, Oltu Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Erzurum, Turkey
ORCID: 0000-0001-9814-4085 
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Hüseyin YILMAZ
Department of Business Administration, Atatürk University, Oltu Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Erzurum, Turkey
ORCID ID: 0000-0003-4105-450X
E-Mail: [email protected]

Associate Editors
Esra KARAKUŞ UMAR
Department of Social Service, Atatürk University, Oltu Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Erzurum, Turkey
ORCID: 0000-0003-1764-9394 
E-Mail: [email protected]

Fatih SOBACI
Department of Finance Banking and Insurance, Gazi Osman Paşa University, Niksar Vocational School, Tokat, Turkey
ORCID: 0000-0002-2261-5079 
E-Mail: [email protected]

Fırat ALTINKAYNAK 
Department of Banking and Finance, Atatürk University, Oltu Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Erzurum, Turkey 
ORCID: 0000-0003-0960-2254 
E-Mail:  [email protected]

Gülşah ÖZDEMİR BAKİ 
Department of Finance, Atatürk University, Oltu Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Erzurum, Turkey
ORCID: 0000-0002-1497-6528 
E-Mail:  [email protected] 

Zeynep BAŞERER BERBER
Department of Social Service, Atatürk University, Oltu Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Erzurum, Turkey
ORCID: 0000-0002-5422-8532 
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Editorial Board
Muhsin HALİS
Department of Management and Organization, Kocaeli University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Kocaeli, Turkey 
E-Mail: [email protected]

Mustafa Cahit UNGAN 
Department of Business Administration, Sakarya University, Faculty of Business Administration, Sakarya, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected]

Güven DELİCE
Department of Banking, Sivas Cumhuriyet University,  Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Sivas, Turkey 
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Mehmet Ali ALAN
Department of Management Information Systems, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Sivas, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Ötüken SENGER
Department of Management Information Systems, Kafkas University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Kars, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Sebahattin YILDIZ
Department of Business Administration, Kafkas University, Faculty of Business Administration and Management, Kars, Turkey

Hasan TAĞRAF
Department of International Trade And Logistics, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Economics And Administrative Sciences, Sivas, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

İbrahim SUBAŞI
Department of Labor And Social Security Law, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Faculty of Law, Istanbul, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Nazım ÖZTÜRK
Department of Finance, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Sivas, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Mehpare TİMOR 
Department of Business Administration, Istanbul University, School of Business, Istanbul, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Adem KARAKAŞ 
Department of Finance Banking and Insurance, Banking and Insurance, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Şarkışla School of Applied Sciences, Sivas, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Mehmet Sadık ÖNCÜL
Department of Finance, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Sivas, Turkey 
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Fatih ERTUGAY 
Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Sivas, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Abdulkadir ŞENKAL 
Department of Labor Economics and Industrial Relations, Kocaeli University, Faculty of Economics And Administrative Sciences, Kocaeli, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Mahmut HIZIROĞLU 
Department of Business Administration, Istanbul University, Faculty of Economics, Istanbul, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Selahattin KARABINAR 
Department of Business Administration, Istanbul University, Faculty of Economics, Istanbul, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected]

Erkan ÖZTÜRK 
Department of Business Administration, Kırklareli University, Faculty of Economics And Administrative Sciences, Kırklareli, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected]

Süleyman UYAR 
Department of Business Administration, Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, Faculty of Economics And Administrative Sciences, Antalya, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Sayım YORĞUN 
Department of Labor Economics Industrial Relations, Istanbul University, Faculty of Economics, Istanbul, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected]

Saime ÖNCE 
Department of Business Administration, Anadolu University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Eskişehir, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Adem ÜZÜMCÜ 
Department of International Trade and Finance, Ankara Hacı Bayram University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Ankara, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected]

Ganite KURT 
Department of Financial Accounting, Ankara Hacı Bayram University, School of Banking And Insurance, Ankara, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected]

Nuran CÖMERT 
Department of Business Administration, Marmara University, Faculty of Business Administration, Istanbul, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Ömer ÖNALAN 
Department of Business Administration, Marmara University, Faculty of Business Administration, Istanbul, Turkey
E-Mail:  [email protected] 

Metehan KÜÇÜKER 
Department of Accounting and Finance Management, Malatya Turgut Özal University, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Malatya, Turkey
E-Mail:  [email protected] 

Seçil SİGALI 
Department of Logistics Management, Dokuz Eylül University, Faculty of Shipping, Izmir, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected]
 
Fevzi Serkan ÖZDEMİR 
Advisor to the President of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey
E-Mail: fsozd[email protected]

Erdoğan GAVCAR
Department of Business Administration, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Muğla, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Mutlu Başaran ÖZTÜRK 
Department of Business Administration, Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Niğde, Turkey

Orhan ÇOBAN 
Department of International Trade and Logistics, Gaziantep University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Gaziantep, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected]     

Nermin AKYEL
Department of International Trade and Logistics, Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sakarya, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Nevran KARACA 
Department of Business Administration, Sakarya University,  Faculty of Business Administration, Sakarya, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Özlem DOĞAN 
Department of Management of Maritime Enterprises, İskenderun Technical University, Hatay, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Duygu ANIL KESKİN
Department of Business Administration, Istanbul University, Faculty of Economics, Istanbul, Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Hakan ÇETİNTAŞ 
Department of Economıcs, Balıkesir Unıversity, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Balıkesir, Turkey 
E-Mail: [email protected] 

Bahadır Fatih YILDIRIM 
Department of Transportation and Logistics, Istanbul University, School of Transportation and Logistics, Istanbul,  Turkey
E-Mail: [email protected] 




Founder
İbrahim Kara
 
General Manager

Ali Şahin
 
Publishing Directors

İrem Soysal
Gökhan Çimen
  
Editor

Bahar Albayrak
 
Publications Coordinators

Arzu Arı
Deniz Kaya
Irmak Berberoğlu
Alara Ergin
Hira Gizem Fidan
Vuslat Taş
İrem Özmen

Web Coordinators
Sinem Fehime Koz
Doğan Oruç

Finance Coordinator
Elif Yıldız Çelik

 

TURKISH
EISSN 2757-6841